The goal of System of Care is to help families help their children succeed at home, in school, and in the community.
The book that initiated scholarly interest in this subject is Edmund S. Morgan, The Puritan Familyrev. In his view, early New England families embodied the broader Puritan emphasis on hierarchy and order, but they also reflected the values that the Puritans placed on consent and reciprocity.
What leavened the great authority over dependents vested in husbands, fathers, and masters was the understanding that each member of the household had certain rights as well as duties.
The Puritans, he contends, believed that sanctity ran in families—that godly parents were more likely than ungodly parents to produce godly children.
John Demos reconnoiters some of the same territory first charted by Morgan in A Little Commonwealtha study of family life in Plymouth Colony.
This builds toward his most intriguing speculation—that the small physical size of households forced family members to repress feelings of anger or frustration toward one another.
Instead, those pent-up hostilities all too readily found other outlets—hence the recurring quarrels over civic and religious matters that rent nearly every community and the willingness of neighbors to haul one another into court over the most trivial matters.
In the same yearPhilip Greven published Four Generations, the first of his two important studies on religion and the early American family. In this community study of Andover, Massachusetts, Greven portrays New England fathers as patriarchs who, by dint of their longevity and the leverage of land legacies, held enormous influence over even their adult children.
But the sway of patriarchy began to wane during the eighteenth century, Greven concludes, as many subdivisions of family farms sharply reduced the acreage that fathers could distribute among their children.
And as paternal control over the economic futures of their offspring weakened, young New Englanders became more autonomous and assertive—more willing to challenge the authority of both their natural fathers and their parent country, England.
Which mode of child rearing does the New England Primer most reflect—the evangelical, the moderate, or the genteel? Library of CongressGreven subsequently produced what remains the most ambitious effort to link different religious persuasions to modes of child rearing, The Protestant Temperament In adulthood, many children reared in such families surrendered any remnant of selfhood in a cathartic conversion experience, a final submission to a demanding deity—onto whom they projected parental characteristics.
Less preoccupied with human sinfulness than evangelicals, moderates sought to control rather than to annihilate the self. That mode of child rearing, in his view, nurtured youthful self-assertion and produced adults who were more at ease with themselves than were either evangelicals or moderates—a well-adjusted lot comfortable with their bodies, their passions, and their ambitions.
Indeed, Levy starkly contrasts the authoritarian, patriarchal families of the Puritans with the more egalitarian households of the Quakers. But Levy pushes the contrast between Puritans and Quakers farther still, arguing that while the Puritans relied on a variety of other institutions like churches and schools to instill children with Christian values, the Quakers vested that obligation solely in the parents.
In that view, the home is a sort of church, the spiritual center of communal life, a haven from the world in which children receive their most crucial moral and spiritual education—and as much from mothers as from fathers. That brings this discussion around to the subject of religion and gender roles.
According to Levy, Quaker spiritual egalitarianism made wives and mothers vibrant, authoritative presences in both household and church, enjoying far greater influence in both spheres than did Puritan matrons.
Curiously enough, Puritan women were far more versed in such worldly concerns. Even so, a deep mistrust of women permeated the culture of Puritan New England. This pervasive misogyny, according to Karlsen, made women susceptible to charges of witchcraft, particularly those who stood to inherit large estates that would have endowed them with uncommon economic influence.
As the preceding paragraphs suggest, most studies of the relationship between religion, family, and gender in early America have focused on the North, especially the New England colonies.
This scholarship does not lend itself readily to adaptation for most high school classes. But familiarity with this scholarship may assist you in emphasizing to students that religious belief did not occupy some discrete sphere separate from the rest of social life. She holds a Ph. Heyrman is the author of Commerce and Culture:Here he posits that three “styles of life” prevailed among Americans between the seventeenth century and the mid-nineteenth century.
The first of these temperaments, the “evangelical,” was exhibited by groups like the Puritans, the Baptists, and the Methodists.
During the seventeenth century, indentured servitude solved the labor problem in many English colonies for all of the following reasons except that A) the Indian population proved to be an unreliable work force because they died in such large numbers. families. A ‘helpmate’ was a term that the Puritans liked to use when referring to a good wife.
Does this mean, however, that romantic love played no part in marriage? Judging by the large number of seventeenth-century diaries, autobiographies or accidental notes in legal documents, romantic love did play an important role on all social levels. During the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century, when Americans from European backgrounds spoke about family, they often referred to what we would call households—people who happen to be living together.
Parergon () Families and Housing in Seventeenth-Century London An attempt to answer these questions has to begin with a definition of terms, even though such a definition is the result as well as the tool of the investigation.
The importance of positive partnerships with families Children learn about the world and their place in it through conversations, play activities and routines with parents and families. Parents can also support children’s learning in out-of-home settings, such as childminding settings, crèches, playgroups, pre-schools, and primary schools.