Open in a separate window Source: WHO [ 70 ]. Nutrition transition as a result of urbanization and affluence has been considered as the major cause for the obesity epidemic [ 70 ].
Numerous literatures have documented a marked shift in the dietary pattern worldwide [ 7071 ]. Major dietary changes include a higher energy density diet with a greater role for fat and added sugars in foods, greater saturated fat intake mostly from animal sourcesmarked increases in animal food consumption, reduced intakes of complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber, and reduced fruit and vegetable intake [ 70 — 73 ].
These dietary changes are compounded by lifestyle changes that reflect reduced physical activity at work and during leisure time [ 7174 ]. Several studies have shown that insufficient physical activity is one of the important risk factors of obesity [ 75 — 77 ], and work-related activity has declined over recent decades in industrialized countries whereas leisure time dominated by television viewing and other physically inactive pastimes has increased [ 7174 ].
Social inequality as a result of economic insecurity and a failing economic environment is also considered as one of the probable causes of obesity.
A review by Drewnowski [ 78 ] indicates that inequitable access to healthy foods as determined by socioeconomic factors could influence the diet and health of a population. Energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods become the best way to provide daily calories at an affordable cost by the poor groups, whereas nutrient-rich foods and high-quality diets not only cost more but are consumed by more affluent groups.
Lack of accessibility of healthy food choices [ 79 ] and the commercial driven food market environment [ 80 ] are also considered as other Preventing obesity within schools essay causes of obesity. The interaction effects among environmental factors, genetic predisposition and the individual behavior on excess weight gain has received research interests in recent decades.
Observational evidence has shown that susceptibility to obesity is determined largely by genetic factors, but the environment prompts phenotype expression. For instance, a study of healthy Japanese men indicated that a missense variant in the interleukin 6 receptor gene interacted significantly with dietary energy intake levels in relation to the risk of abdominal obesity [ 82 ].
Possible mechanisms by which genetic susceptibility may operate include low resting metabolic rate, low rate of lipid oxidation, low fat-free mass and poor appetite control [ 11 ]. The concept of programming in fetal or postnatal life is firstly established from experimental animal studies.
A wealth of evidence from animal studies has demonstrated that exposure to an elevated or excess nutrient supply before birth is associated with an increased risk of obesity and associated metabolic disorders in later life [ 84 ].
Results from epidemiological studies and experimental studies in human also supported that intrauterine or postnatal nutrition could predispose individuals to obesity in later life [ 8485 ].
In a review by Martorell and colleagues [ 85 ], intrauterine over-nutrition as proxied by high birth weight or gestational diabetes is associated with subsequent fatness, and breastfeeding has a protective effect on the development of obesity.
In contrast, the evidence that poor nutrition in early life is a risk factor for increased fatness later in life is still inconclusive. Effectiveness of the Current Public Health Strategies for Risk Factor Reduction and Obesity Prevention A public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is of great importance and has been advocated in recent years [ 1186 ].
The development and implementation of obesity prevention strategies should target factors contributing to obesity, should target barriers to lifestyle change at personal, environmental and socioeconomic levels, and actively involve different levels of stakeholders and other major parties.
A proposed framework by Sacks [ 87 ] suggests that policy actions to the development and implementation of effective public health strategies to obesity prevention should 1 target the food environments, the physical activity environments and the broader socioeconomic environments; 2 directly influence behavior, aiming at improving eating and physical activity behaviors; and 3 support health services and clinical interventions.
Examples of policies under each of these groups are reviewed in the following sections. Food, Physical Activity, and Socioeconomic Environments To alter the food environment such that healthy choices are the easier choices, and to alter the physical activity environment to facilitate higher levels of physical activities and to reduce sedentary lifestyle, are the key targets of obesity prevention policies.
There are a wide range of policy areas that could influence the food environments. These areas include fiscal food policies, mandatory nutrition panels on the formulation and reformulation of manufactured foods, implementation of food and nutrition labeling, and restricting marketing and advertising bans of unhealthy foods [ 87 — 89 ].
For instance, some studies have demonstrated that food prices have a marked influence on food-buying behavior. A small study was done in a cafeteria setting and was designed to look at the effects of availability and price on the consumption of fruit and salad.
It was shown that increasing variety and reducing price by half roughly tripled consumption of both food items, whereas returning price and availability to the original environmental conditions brought consumption back to its original levels [ 90 ].
Policy areas influencing physical activity environments include urban planning policies, transport policies and organizational policies on the provision of facilities for physical activity [ 8792 ]. A recent review by Sallis and Glanz [ 93 ] summarized the impact of physical activity and food environments as solutions to the obesity epidemic.
Living in walkable communities and having parks and other recreation facilities nearby were consistently associated with higher levels of physical activity in youth, adults, and older adults. Better school design, such as including basketball hoops and having a large school grounds, and better building design, such as signs promoting stair use and more convenient access to stairs than to elevators were associated with higher levels of physical activity in youth, adults and older adults [ 93 ].
As mentioned earlier, social inequality as a result of economic insecurity and a failing economic environment is also considered as one of the probable causes of obesity [ 78 ].
Therefore, policy areas covering the financial, education, employment and social policies could impact population health. As illustrated by Sacks [ 87 ], trade agreements between countries, personal income tax regimes and social security mechanisms are some potential policy areas that could be altered at international, national and state levels for the development of population-based strategies for obesity prevention.
There are many key settings, such as schools, home environment, workplaces and community, in which policies could target to directly influence the eating and physical activity behaviors. A policy-based school intervention has been found to be effective for the prevention and control of obesity.
The two-year School Nutrition Policy Initiative including components of school self-assessment, nutrition education, nutrition policy, social marketing, and parent outreach has been documented to be effective in reducing the incidence of overweight in school children [ 94 ].
A review examined the effectiveness of school-based strategies for obesity prevention and control based on results of nineteen included studies [ 95 ]. A study has evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention program, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, on obesity indices and blood pressure in Ioannina, Greece [ 96 ].
In this study, fifth grade students were assigned to the one-year school-based intervention focused on overcoming the barriers in accessing physical activity areas, increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables and increasing parental support, and students served as control group.
The intervention group also showed significantly lower BMI and blood pressure than the control group. The leadership role for schools in promoting physical activity in children and youth has also been advocated in a Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association Council [ 97 ].Preventing Obesity Within Schools Essays - Physical activity is seen as an important and essential part of a child’s life (Rivkin, ).
With the increasing prevalence of overweight children, and the decline in physical activity (McDevitt & Ormrod, ) there is justifiably a concern about the relationship of these to obesity.
Schools can perform a role in the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. Government management can also perform a role in treatment and deterrence of childhood obesity.
Parents can perform a significant role, because the children depend on . Essay childhood obesity. Childhood Obesity ENG English Composition II October 5, Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity has become a serious health concern in the United States.
Obesity rates have doubled in children from the ages of 2 – 11 and tripled in teens ages (American Psychological Association ).
Importance Of Physical Activity In Schools Education Essay. Print What roles do teachers of today play in addressing and preventing obesity in our children and what are effective strategies to do this? and English teachers have opportunities to become involved in preventive activities within their appropriate curriculum areas as well as. Schools can perform a role in the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. Government management can also perform a role in treatment and deterrence of childhood obesity. Parents can perform a significant role, because the children depend on . With the nation's childhood obesity rate triple what it was 30 years ago for adolescents, expectations that schools will do more to help keep students healthy continue to rise.
School Obesity Prevention Recommendations: Complete List The Role of Schools in Preventing Childhood Obesity The State Education Standard. 5. American Heart Association.
Solving the Problem of Childhood Obesity within a Generation: White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity Report to the President. Accessed July 11, Tackling childhood obesity within schools: lessons learned from school-based interventions Summary report Edited by Karen Whitby based on original material by Rachael Dixey and Janet Wordley LITERATURE REVIEW.
|Obesity Children develop within a set framework and grow according to the levels of exercise and nutrition available to them as well as their particular genetic nature. In affluent countries such as Australia this growth can be affected by the lack of exercise and the consumption of too many kilojoules.|
Childhood OBESITY The Role of Schools in Preventing Childhood OBESITY H eadlines across the nation proclaim news that educators have seen with their own eyes during.