HiCare Views Air pollution is a phenomenon that occurs when any additional gas, particles or odors are introduced into the air.
The Health Effects of Air Pollution: The nose, mouth and throat filter air, food and water as it comes into the body. The skin, the largest organ of the body, protects the internal system from knocks, scrapes and cuts; senses changes in the environment; controls the body temperature; acts as a waterproof barrier and a screen against the sun's damaging radiation; and protects underlying tissues from infection.
The brain and nervous system direct interpretation and reaction to sensations from the environment outside the body, internal organs, tissues and cells.
The body has its own fight or flight mechanism that engages quickly when danger is near. If bacteria, viruses or other toxic enemies invade the body, white blood cells come to the body's defense and kill the invader.
This intricate system of protection is increasingly under attack. The invader, which can be odorless and invisible, rides quietly on the most essential element in the human environment- the air we breathe.
Air pollution -- toxins, particulate matter and ozone -- is the invader that can break down the body's defenses, or at least contribute to the burden this elegant defense system bears. The Nose, Mouth and Throat The main route for air pollutants is through the nose, mouth and throat.
The nose is very efficient at trapping and holding some inhaled pollutants. Concentrations of chemicals build up in the nose as the air is cleaned. The pollutants that accumulate in the nose can cause problems in the nose and sinuses or be absorbed in mucus membranes, resulting in a number of harmful effects on the body.
The cell damage caused by exposure to chemical pollutants puts the body's defense system on alert and initiates an inflammatory response, similar to an allergic response. This can cause immune suppression, making the body more susceptible to disease.
It also can trigger a secondary immune response by causing the release of various chemicals or breakdown products. For example, when the nose is exposed to ozone, the airways are burned, causing inflammation and mucus production.
The inflamed, runny nose has an increased sensitivity to allergens, such as pollen, and is more susceptible to viral and bacterial infections. The Skin The skin is a target organ for pollution and also the site of significant absorption of environmental pollutants. One of the main concerns for the health of the skin related to air pollution is skin cancer.
Exposure to ultraviolet B UVB irradiation is closely associated with the development of skin cancers. Chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons CFCs deplete the ozone layer allowing harmful amounts of UVB to penetrate to the earth's surface. Research shows that for a 1 percent decrease in stratospheric ozone not to be confused with ground-level ozonethere will be a 2 percent increase in UVB irradiance and therefore, a 2 percent increase in skin cancer is likely.
The Blood After air pollutants are inhaled, absorbed through the skin or the intestines, they can enter the blood stream, where their potential harmful effects are distributed throughout the body. Blood passes through all the body's organs and tissues, and can carry toxic substances as well as beneficial substances, such as oxygen, to them.
Chemicals with known adverse effects carried in the air include benzene, lead, mercury, carbon monoxide, volatile nitrites, pesticides and herbicides, and others. All of these have been found to lead to harmful effects on the blood as well as the system that is involved in the formation of blood including: Some air pollutants interfere with the function of blood, which results in detrimental effects on all organs of the body.
For example, hemoglobin is the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body. Carbon monoxide, a product of incomplete combustion, binds over times more firmly to hemoglobin than oxygen, seriously interfering with blood's oxygen-transport capability.
Severe acute exposure can result in death due to asphyxiation or to permanent damage to the central nervous system. The Lungs A review of "Air pollution and health" in the October issue of Lancet describe a long list of short- and long-term studies showing an association between air pollutants and an increase in deaths and hospital admissions due to respiratory and cardiovascular disease.
Ground-level ozone, nitrogen oxide and airborne particles are the main sources of concern. All three are oxidants, or oxygen free radicals. These unstable molecules are constantly released during metabolism, when the body's infection fighting cells are gobbling up and digesting bacteria, debris and foreign antigens.
They are a part of normal metabolism and have other beneficial roles in the human body. But when oxidant air pollutants are brought into this mix, cell damage occurs causing inflammation and making cells more vulnerable to cancer.
Severe inflammation can cause significant damage including scarring of lung tissue, called fibrosis, and abnormal thickening.The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed.
Abstract Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on.
People exposed to toxic air pollutants at sufficient concentrations and durations may have an increased chance of getting cancer or experiencing other serious health effects.
These health effects can include damage to the immune system, as well as neurological, reproductive (e.g., reduced fertility), developmental, respiratory and other health problems.
Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air that are detrimental to human health and the planet as a whole.
Effects of Air Pollution Hazardous air pollutants. The effects of some most frequently present and relevant pollutants on human body, presented as typical diseases registered at organisms’ level are presented in this paper work.
Keywords Aplastic Anemia Optic Neuritis . Human exposure to hazardous chemicals can occur at the source or the chemical could move to a place where people can come into contact with it. Chemicals can move through air, soil, and water. They can also be on plants or animals, and can get into the air we breathe, the food we eat and the water we drink.
These pollutants commonly enter the human body system through the skin, eyes, ears, nose and/or mouth. Each of these substances represents a significant threat to human health, causing anything from acute sudden illness to long-term chronic diseases and even death.